Wednesday, September 10, 2014


Eduard Cao, Reggie Hutchins, Laura Bueno, Dillon Rendo. 

Biographies of the cast of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz are now online. To see them, click the BIOS link on the menu bar above or click here.

I had gathered bios and headshots to print in a handsomely designed program for the performance on August 9, 2014. But time slipped through my fingers. The night before the show I whipped out a minimal program that would suffice, but bios and photos didn't make it in. I promised myself to publish them all on the website, so here they are.

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Original Production Performance Schedule

This partially reconstructed list of the performance schedule of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz during its original ten-month production in 1913-14 is expanded from research begun by Patrick Maund. The following list incorporates additions and corrections to the list of touring dates for the show included as a sidebar to my article "Guaranteed for a Thousand Years" in The Winkie Con 50 Program Book. Further additions and corrections are welcome. I'll add them as I receive them.

UPDATE: The following information has been supplemented according to  research by Scott Cummings.
Citation: Cummings, S. "The Tik-Tok Man of Oz 1913-14 Tour Dates" in The Baum Bugle, vol. 58, no. 3 (Winter 2014). San Francisco: The International Wizard of Oz Club, Inc., p. 40.

UPDATE: Seattle and Sacramento dates and theaters added.

March 31-April 19, 1913 – Los Angeles, California – Majestic Theater
April 21-May 10 – San Francisco, California – Cort Theater
May 25-August 23 – Chicago, Illinois – George M. Cohan’s Grand Opera House
August 24-30 – St. Paul, Minnesota – Metropolitan
August 31-September 6, 1913 – Minneapolis, Minnesota – Shubert
September 8-13 – Indianapolis, Indiana – Murat Theatre
September 14-20 – Cincinnati, Ohio – Lyric Theater
September 21-27 – St. Louis, Missouri – Shubert
September 27(?) – Cleveland, Ohio – Colonial Theater
September 28-October 4 – Kansas City, Missouri – Shubert Theater
October 5-6 – St. Joseph, Missouri – Tootle
October 7 – Lawrence, Kansas – Bowersock Theatre
October 8 – Topeka, Kansas – Grand Theater
October 9 – Beatrice, Nebraska – New Paddock
October 10-11 – Lincoln, Nebraska – Oliver Theatre
October 12-15 – Omaha, Nebraska – Brandeis Theater
October 16 – Sioux City, Iowa
October 17-18 – Des Moines, Iowa – Berchel
October 19 – Burlington, Iowa – Grand Opera House
October 20 – Davenport, Iowa
October 21 – Moline, Illinois – Moline
October 22 – Rock Island, Illinois – Illinois theater
October 23 – Joliet, Illinois – Joliet Theatre
October 24 – Rockford, Illinois – Grand Theater
October 25 – Janesville, Wisconsin – Myers Opera House
October 26-November 1 – Milwaukee, Wisconsin – Davidson
November 2 – Sheboygan, Wisconsin – Opera House
November 4 – Madison, Wisconsin – Opera House
November 5 – La Crosse, Wisconsin – La Crosse Theater
November 6 – Winona, Minnesota – Opera House
November 7 – Austin, Minnesota
November 8 – Mason City, Iowa
November 9 – Fort Dodge, Iowa – Princess Theatre
November 10 – Waterloo, Iowa
November 11 – Marshalltown, Iowa – Odeon Theater
November 12 – Cedar Rapids, Iowa – Greene's Opera House
November 13 – Dubuque, Iowa
November 14 – Clinton, Iowa – Clinton
November 15(?) – Quincy, Illinois
November 16 – Racine, Wisconsin – Racine Theatre
November 18 – Wausua, Wisconsin – Grand Opera House
November 19 – Eau Claire, Wisconsin – Grand Theater
November 21-22 – Duluth, Minnesota – Lyceum Theater
November 24-29 – Winnipeg, Manitoba – Walker Theatre
December 2 – Billings, Montana – Babcock Theater
December 3 – Butte, Montana – Broadway Theatre
December 4 – Anaconda, Montana – Margaret Theatre
December 8 – Missoula, Montana – Missoula Theater
December 9-10 – Spokane, Washington – Spokane
December 11 and/or 12 – Seattle, Washington – Moore Theater
December 13 – Tacoma, Washington – Tacoma Theater
December 25-27 – Oakland, California – Macdonough Theater
December 28-29 – San Jose, California – Victory Theater
January 1-2, 1914 – Sacramento, California – Clunie Theater
January 3-4 – Reno, Nevada – Majestic Theater
January 6-7* – Oakland, California – Macdonough Theater
January (8 or 10?) – Riverside, California – Loring Theater
January 9 – Bakersfield, California – Bakersfield Opera House
January 11 – San Luis Obispo, California – Elmo Theater
January 14 – San Bernardino, California – Opera House
January 16-17 – San Diego, California – Spreckels Theatre
January 18-24 – Los Angeles, California – Majestic Theatre

The following information is incorrect according to Cummings's list, but I include it here apart from the main list, pending further investigation. These dates and theaters may have been originally scheduled, then later cancelled:
September 27(?) – Cleveland, Ohio – Colonial Theater
(date unknown) – Kalamazoo, Michigan – Fuller Theater
November 17 – Galesburg, Illinois
November 20 – Bloomington, Illinois

*  In my possession is an original newspaper ad for the second Oakland run, which lists the dates as January 8-10. Cummings lists the second Oakland run as January 6-7, which actually makes sense of the previously confusing dates for the Bakersfield performance and the possible Riverside performance. Performance dates for Oakland could easily have been changed after the newspaper ad was published, so I'm offering Cummings's Oakland schedule as the preferred one. The now un-preferred info is:
January 8-10 – Oakland, California – Macdonough Theater (newspaper ad)
January 9(?) – Bakersfield, California – Bakersfield Opera House (This date from a Bakersfield Morning Echo announcement, January 8, 1913, conflicts with the substantiated dates of January 8-10 when the show played in Oakland. Was the Bakersfield performance cancelled?)
January (?) – Riverside, California – Loring Theater (It’s uncertain that the show played Riverside. Perhaps it was scheduled, possibly on January 8 or 10, then cancelled, similar to the possible Bakersfield cancellation.)

Monday, September 8, 2014

Corrections to the Program Book Essay

For The Winkie Con 50 Program Book I wrote an article, “Guaranteed for a Thousand Years,” that covers the history of L. Frank Baum's 1913 musical The Tik-Tok Man of Oz from the earliest news reports in 1907 through rehearsals for Clockwork Productions's 2014 staging. The article appears on pages 113-72. It contains a number of errors. I've noted them below with corrections.

Frank F. Moore as the Shaggy Man and James C. Morton as Tik-Tok, 1913.

“Guaranteed for a Thousand Years” by Eric Shanower

Page 113, column two, line eight: for “1905” read “1906”

Page [114], column one, line sixteen: for “Del Coronado” read “del Coronado”

Page 115, line three: for “scenario--a” read “scenario—a”

Page 117, paragraph three, line six: for “1911” read “1910”

Page [121], line nineteen: for "hundred were assembled" read "hundred was assembled"

Page [123], line two: for "Fred C. Woodward" read "Fred Woodward"

Page [126], column one, line nineteen: for “tiger were added.” read “tiger were added—although a tiger appears in at least one photograph that seems to be from the earlier March 1913 rehearsal period.”

Page [127], caption, line three: for “reported in to consist” read “reported to consist”

Page [129], first caption, line two: for "comtemplates" read "contemplates"

Page [129], second caption, line three: for “Fies” read “Files”

Page 133, column one, line three: for "Fairyland Express" read "Fairyland Special"

Page [149], column one, lines nineteen and twenty: for “Mark Hartman” read “Brian De Lorenzo”

Page [150], column two, line twenty-five: for “Patricia Tobias” read “Richard Woitach”

Page [151], line twenty-five: for "fully-stage" read "fully-staged"

Page 153, column one, lines eleven and twelve: for “Sieze Her!, and supplementing it with musical themes from The Tik-Tok Man of Oz.” read “Sieze Her!”

Page 159, from the Dance Ensemble at the bottom of the page, eliminate: “Ana Mendoza”

Page 159, add to the cast list: “Pas de Deux – Alex Flores and Caley Hernandez”

Page 163, column two, lines seven and eight: for “composer--his first was Thomas Ince’s Civilization--and” read “composer—his first was Thomas Ince’s Civilization—and”

Page 166, column two, line two: for “Rogers” read “Rodgers”

Page [167], upper right caption, line two: for “Dunsmore” read “Dunsmure”

Page [167], column two, line four: for “Rogers” read “Rodgers”

Page 172, line fifteen: for "Hotel Del" read "Hotel del"

Page 172, line seventeen: for “1911” read “1910”

Eduard Cao as the Shaggy Man and Reggie Hutchins as Tik-Tok, 2014

Citation for the original article:
Shanower, Eric. "Guaranteed for a Thousand Years." The Winkie Con 50 Program Book. Ed. David Maxine. San Diego: Hungry Tiger Press, 2014. 113-172. Print.

Bottom photo copyright © 2014 Freddy Fogarty. All rights reserved.

Saturday, September 6, 2014

The Music of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz

Cover of published "So Do I" sheet music.
One primary goal of reviving Baum and Gottschalk's vintage stage musical The Tik-Tok Man of Oz was to give audience members the chance to hear all the surviving musical numbers in performance. Fourteen songs for the show with lyrics by L. Frank Baum and music by Louis F. Gottschalk survive. One instrumental piece by Gottschalk survives. Three songs written for the show with lyrics by Oliver Morosco and music by Victor Schertzinger survive. One song written by Victor Schertzinger survives. These nineteen numbers were all part of the performance on August 9, 2014.

Two of the commercially released selections of Gottschalk music from The Tik-Tok Man of Oz were performed as well. The main "Selection" served as the Overture. The "Lanciers" served as the Entr'acte.

At least twelve musical numbers from the original 1913-14 production are not known to survive. Gottschalk's music for "A Storm at Sea" is one that's gone. To fill this hole, "Bacchanal Dance" by Gottschalk from his unproduced score for Julius, Sieze Her! was substituted, modified by musical director Joseph Grienenberger to fit the action of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz Prelude.

Polychrome, Shaggy, Betsy, Ozma, and Hank listen to Tik-Tok sing "The Clockwork Man."
No finale survives for either Act One or Act Two. For the Act One finale, lyrics by L. Frank Baum in the earliest existing script for the show, a version from 1909, were slightly modified by Eric Shanower to fit a combination of music from "Ask the Flowers to Tell You" and "The Army of Oogaboo." For the Act Two finale, the chorus of "The Magnet of Love" was reprised by the entire company.

Cover of published "Ask the Flowers to Tell You" sheet music.
Beyond the fourteen surviving songs with lyrics by Baum, many other Baum lyrics survive in the 1909 version of the script. With one exception these do not have music and it's unclear whether any of them were used in the original 1913-14 production. They were not performed in this production. The one exception is "Fight for Oogaboo" with lyrics by Baum that clearly fit Gottschalk's music for "The Army of Oogaboo." Although "Fight for Oogaboo" was performed in the original production, it was not performed in this.

Two known interpolations to the original production—"Forgotten" with lyrics attributed to Flora Wulschner and music by Eugene Cowles, and "One, Two, Three, It's All Over Now," lyricist and composer unknown—were not included in this performance.

All the surviving Tik-Tok Man of Oz music was never included in a single performance of the original production. Songs came and went during its ten month run. But this production fit all the surviving songs into one performance. Over the course of the original production, songs were assigned to different characters. Our production generally assigned each song to the character or characters that primarily sang it in the original. Parts sung by a chorus in the original production were generally sung by principal characters in this.

Baum's lyrics for Tik-Tok's verse in "Folly!" are racially insensitive. Eric Shanower revised them for this production to eliminate mention of an African native eating a missionary.

Listed here are the musical numbers performed in Clockwork Productions's The Tik-Tok Man of Oz. Joseph Grienenberger was the musical director and played keyboard for the performance. Unless otherwise noted, Grienenberger—working from piano/vocal sheet music—orchestrated the music for Michael Fowler (trumpet), Fred Allee (drums and percussion), and Rafael Estrada (double bass).

The Tik-Tok Man of Oz Musical Numbers 

OVERTURE (Gottschalk, arranged for orchestra by J. Bodewalt Lampe) 


“A STORM AT SEA” (Gottschalk, arranged from manuscript by Joseph Grienenberger) – Dance of WAVES and STORM-AT-SEA BETSY 

Act One 


“THE MAGNET OF LOVE” (Baum/Gottschalk) – BETSY 

“OH MY BOW” with Dance (Baum/Gottschalk) – POLYCHROME; Dance of POLYCHROME  and RAINBOW GIRLS 





“ASK THE FLOWERS TO TELL YOU” (Baum/Gottschalk) – OZMA and FILES; Pas de deux 

“DEAR OLD HANK” (Baum/Gottschalk) – BETSY 


Act Two 

ENTR'ACTE (Gottschalk) 

“IMPS MARCH” (Gottschalk) – Dance of IMPS 

“WORK, LADS, WORK” (Baum/Gottschalk) – RUGGEDO and IMPS



Cover of published "My Wonderful Dream Girl" sheet music.

“MY WONDERFUL DREAM GIRL” (Morosco/Schertzinger) – FILES

“FOLLY!” (Baum/Gottschalk) – TIK-TOK, BETSY, and SHAGGY; Dance of ENSEMBLE

“OH, TAKE ME” (Morosco/Schertzinger) – OZMA and FILES

“JUST FOR FUN” (Baum/Gottschalk) – OZMA and FILES; Dance of ROSES

Dance Music of “OH MY BOW” (Gottschalk) 

“SO DO I” (Baum/Gottschalk) – TIK-TOK and RUGGEDO with BETSY 

“WALTZ SCREAM” (Baum/Gottschalk) – ANN and SHAGGY; Dance of ENSEMBLE 

“THE MAGNET OF LOVE” Chorus Reprise (Baum/Gottschalk) – COMPANY

Finale of Act Two, with Betsy, Polychrome, Imps, Ann, Ugly Man, Ozma, Files, and Royal Gardener.
For complete cast information see this previous blog post.
Photos copyright © Freddy Fogarty 2014. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Thursday, September 4, 2014

Tik-Tok Lives!

Finale Act I - Hank the Mule, Betsy, Polychrome, Queen Ann, Shaggy Man, Tik-Tok, Private Files, Ozma.
Clockwork Productions's presentation of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz performed on August 9, 2014, as the Saturday evening program of Winkie Con 50 at the Town and Country Hotel, 500 Hotel Circle North, San Diego, California, for an audience of about two hundred and fifty.

The Shaggy Man arrives in the Rose Kingdom, with Hank, Moss Rose, Jacque Rose, and Betsy.
Preparations continued up until the last moment—I was hanging mirror-ball fruit onto the metal forest trees for Act 2, Scene 2, just an hour before the performance began. The show was a triumph, due to the efforts of all involved. Appreciative comments from the audience afterward focused on the performance of ten-year-old Alyson Stein as the gymnastic Royal Gardener and on the beautiful voices of the principal singers—Tamara Rodriguez as Polychrome probably was mentioned most often. The audience took favorable notice of  Eduard Cao's comic timing as the Shaggy Man. Chris Boltz's lighting as well as Eric Shanower and David Maxine's costumes also garnered praise. Negative reaction was primarily reserved for L. Frank Baum's script.

Ruggedo and Polychrome.
Final credits for this production of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz:

Book and Lyrics by L. Frank Baum
Music composed by Louis F. Gottschalk
Additional songs by Oliver Morosco and Victor Schertzinger
Abridgement by Eric Shanower

Director - Chrissy Burns
Musical Director - Joseph Grienenberger
Lighting Designer - Christopher Boltz
Choreographer - Jennifer Solomon-Rubio
Set and Costume Designers - David Maxine and Eric Shanower 

Betsy Bobbin, from Oklahoma - Laura Bueno
Hank the Mule - Dillon Rendo
The Shaggy Man - Eduard Cao
Ozma, the Rose Princess - Kendra Truett
Polychrome, Daughter of the Rainbow - Tamara Rodriguez
Tik-Tok, the Clockwork Man - Reggie Hutchins
Queen Ann Soforth of Oogaboo - Amanda Everett
Private Files - Vander Turner
Ozma, the Rose Princess, and Private Files
Ruggedo, the Metal Monarch - Danny Ingersoll

Storm-at-Sea Betsy, Royal Gardener - Alyson Stein
Moss Rose - Sydney Kerl
Jacque Rose - Taylor Schwartz
The Ugly Man - Eric Shanower

Dance Ensemble - Taylor Hamilton, Caley Hernandez, Sydney Kerl, Sydney Rei, Taylor Schwartz, Alyson Stein, and Carmina Vasquez

Pas de Deux - Alex Flores and Caley Hernandez

Keyboard - Joseph Grienenberger
Trumpet - Michael Fowler
Drums and Percussion - Fred Allee
Double Bass - Rafael Estrada

Assistant Director and Assistant Stage Manager - Nikki Jacquot
Make-up - Taylor Schwartz
Wardrobe and Props - J’nae Rae Spano, Lauren Ladley, Karen Ladley, and Danielle Stein
Lighting Assistant - Jim Keller

Queen Ann commands.
Spotlight Operators - Stephanie Godoy and Meredith O’Gwynn
Sound Engineer - John Volk
Videographers - Bob Bates, Marilyn Bates

Polychrome’s dress constructed by Claudia La Rue
Tik-Tok’s clockwork chestplate constructed by David Maxine

Additional costume, prop, and set construction - David Kelleher, Reggie Hutchins, Claudia La Rue, Tina Fellows, Amanda Everett, Eduard Cao, Joe Phillips, Sandy Firestone, Lauren Ladley, Karen Ladley, Freddy Fogarty, Danny Ingersoll, Ted Abenheim, Joseph Fombon, and Rebecca Klein

House Manager - Chris Fowler
Ushers -  Robyn Segel Shifren, Laurie Painter McGuerty, and Rich Snyder

I'd also like to thank: Infinity Dance Arts, 1075 Broadway, El Cajon, California, for generously donating audition and rehearsal space and loaning some costumes and props; Ellen Joy Weber, Candice Hooper, and Christian Esquevin of the Coronado Public Library in Coronado, California, for loaning a prop; Freddy Fogarty for giving permission to publish his photos, for which he reserves all rights, on this post; and all donors who are listed here.

Curtain Call.

Sunday, May 11, 2014

Sold Out!

Tik-Tok and Button-Bright by John R. Neill, The Road to Oz,  1909
Full Three-Day Memberships for Winkie Con 50, which include seats at the Saturday evening performance of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz, sold out last Thursday. We'll be playing to a packed house. Woo-hoo!

Daytime Memberships are still available, but seating at the evening programs is not guaranteed. Nevertheless, there's still plenty to do and see at Winkie Con 50.

Friday, May 9, 2014

The Multiple Faces of Betsy and Hank

Dorothy and Toto by W. W. Denslow, 1900
Betsy by John R. Neill, 1914
L. Frank Baum’s characters of Betsy Bobbin and her mule Hank in The Tik-Tok Man of Oz are variations on Dorothy Gale and her dog Toto, who originally appeared in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Betsy from Oklahoma is simply Dorothy from Kansas with a new name and place of origin.

Hank by John R. Neill, 1914
Betsy’s genesis as Dorothy is most apparent in the storm at sea that starts Betsy on her way to Oz in Tik-Tok Man. Baum based this storm at sea on the one that sends Dorothy on her second Oz adventure in the book Ozma of Oz.

In the 1909 version of the stage script Betsy’s last name is Baker, but when the show reached the stage in 1913, she had attained her official last name of Bobbin—perhaps because she enters the story bobbin’ upon the waves.

It’s easy to see that Betsy is actually Dorothy in a different guise. But how in the world did Toto the dog become Hank the Mule? To understand the answer, you’ll need a little history.

Betsy and Hank, 1913
Soon after Baum’s first Oz book, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, was published in 1900, he set about turning it into a stage musical. The Wizard of Oz opened on Broadway in January 1903, directed by Julian Mitchell of later Follies fame, and produced by Fred Hamlin. The pantomime animal role of a cow was easier than that of a little black dog for an actor to play, so Toto was cut from the play and Imogene, Dorothy’s pet cow, was introduced. In the Broadway show Imogene accompanied Dorothy from Kansas to Oz. The cow’s antics of repeatedly trying to eat the Scarecrow’s straw evidently set the audience roaring with laughter.

Imogene, the Scarecrow, and Dorothy on Broadway, 1903
Ten years later in 1913 The Tik-Tok Man of Oz was one of Baum’s many attempts to repeat the success of the Broadway Wizard of Oz. The reviews of Tik-Tok Man in the Chicago newspapers in particular pointed out the glaring parallels between the two shows. Hank the Mule, as the pantomime animal role, was merely one more of those parallels.

So that’s how a dog became a mule. There was an intermediate step in between—a pet cow named Imogene.

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

The Evolution of the Rose Princess

Portrait of Ozma by John R. Neill, Ozma of Oz, 1907.
L. Frank Baum originally introduced the character Ozma, rightful ruler of the Land of Oz, briefly toward the end of his second Oz book, The Marvelous Land of Oz. In the third book in his Oz series, Ozma of Oz, published in 1907, Ozma takes a much larger role in the story. Baum originally based his stage musical The Tik-Tok Man of Oz on that third Oz book.

The earliest surviving version of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz is titled The Rainbow's Daughter; Or The Magnet of Love. It's a scenario by Baum dated February 23, 1909. Ozma in that scenario bears little resemblance to the Ozma readers know from the Oz books.

She also differs a bit from Ozma in The Tik-Tok Man of Oz as it was finally produced. In the musical Ozma, the Rose Princess, grows on the royal rose bush in the Rose Kingdom, but the rose inhabitants don't want a female ruler and refuse to pick her. In the Rainbow's Daughter scenario, Ozma instead grows on a bush in a vegetable kingdom, but the vegetable inhabitants refuse to pick her. In both versions Betsy and the Shaggy Man pick Ozma anyway.

Illustration by Neill, Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, 1908.
Readers of Baum's 1908 Oz book Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz may find the episode familiar. In that story an unnamed royal princess of the Vegetable Kingdom of the Mangaboos grows in the Royal Gardens. But the Mangaboo Prince refuses to pick her. Dorothy and the Wizard pick the princess anyway. The similarity to The Tik-Tok Man of Oz is obvious.

As in the cases of the Shaggy Man and Polychrome, discussed in previous posts, it's unclear which instance of this "Picking the Princess" episode Baum wrote first. Baum conceived of what eventually became The Tik-Tok Man of Oz stage musical as early as 1907. The "Picking the Princess" episode might have been part of Baum's idea for the show before he used it in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. Or Baum could have invented the episode for Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz and later incorporated it into The Rainbow's Daughter scenario. Or he may have used the "Picking the Princess" idea in both projects at the same time.

The Rose Princess, illustration by John R. Neill, Tik-Tok of Oz, 1914.
The Ozma who audiences watched on stage in 1913-14 was no longer the same Ozma from the Oz books. So when Baum turned The Tik-Tok Man of Oz stage musical into his Oz book for 1914, Tik-Tok of Oz, he changed the name of the Rose Princess from Ozma to Ozga and made her a distant cousin of Ozma, ruler of Oz.

You can see a fully staged production of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz by L. Frank Baum at Winkie Con 50, August 9, 2014, in San Diego, California. Everyone registered for a three-day membership to the convention will have a guaranteed seat at the show. For details and to register, click here.

Friday, April 25, 2014

The Rainbow's Daughter of Oz

Polychrome's first appearance by John R. Neill, The Road to Oz, 1909.
Polychrome, Daughter of the Rainbow, is in a situation similar to that of the Shaggy Man, which I discussed in my previous blog post. Polychrome's first published appearance was in L. Frank Baum's book The Road to Oz in 1909. But did Baum create Polychrome for that book or did he create the character for the stage musical eventually known as The Tik-Tok Man of Oz? 

In 1907 the planned stage musical had been titled Ozma of Oz, but the August 1909 issue of The Theatre Magazine printed an interview with Baum and quoted him as saying, "An extravaganza that will go either by the name of 'Ozma of Oz' or 'The Rainbow's Daughter,' will be put on the first week in October." Baum sometimes exaggerated in his publicity, and here it's clear he exaggerated the timing of this show. It would take until 1913, rather than October of 1909, for it to reach the stage. But Baum was correct in naming the two alternatives for the title of the work. His scenario for The Rainbow's Daughter--dated February 23, 1909, according to Michael Patrick Hearn in The Annotated Wizard of Oz--survives. The action it describes is similar to the stage musical known intermittently as Ozma of Oz and titled finally The Tik-Tok Man of Oz.

The title The Rainbow's Daughter makes it seem that for a little while at least Baum may have considered Polychrome, the Rainbow's Daughter, as the main character in this stage musical. If her role was originally that important, perhaps this indicates that Baum invented the character early in his development of the show, even as early as 1907, and only later inserted her into his manuscript for The Road to Oz. Alternatively, Baum might have created Polychrome for The Road to Oz and been so taken with the character that he integrated her into the stage script, even going so far as to consider titling the show after her. Or maybe Baum simply came up with the character and used her in both projects at once.

Polychrome by John R. Neill, The Road to Oz, 1909.

Thursday, April 24, 2014

First Appearance of the Shaggy Man of Oz

John R. Neill's illustration of the Shaggy Man in The Road to Oz, 1909.
What project did L. Frank Baum create the character of the Shaggy Man for? Was it for the script of the stage musical eventually titled The Tik-Tok Man of Oz? Or was it for the 1909 book in his Oz series, The Road to Oz?

The first published appearance of the Shaggy Man was certainly in the first chapter of The Road to Oz where he meets Dorothy Gale and Toto on their Kansas farm.

But the earliest surviving script for what became The Tik-Tok Man of Oz is titled Ozma of Oz: A Musical Extravaganza in Two Acts and dated April 15th, 1909. It's labeled "second writing" and the Shaggy Man is a principal character in this script.

Which came first, the book or the stage script, both dated 1909? There's probably no way to tell now, but most likely L. Frank Baum was working on both projects at about the same time.

It's possible that Baum created the Shaggy Man for the play and then inserted the character into his manuscript for The Road to Oz. I think the timing makes it unlikely that Baum first put the Shaggy Man into The Road to Oz then later transferred the character to his musical script--but he could have.

We'll probably never know the sequence for sure.

Monday, April 21, 2014

First Draft of the Script

According to this newspaper article, the first draft of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz was written by L. Frank Baum in 1907. It was based on his third Oz book, Ozma of Oz, and the stage show originally had the same title.

The book Ozma of Oz was published in 1907, so Baum seems to have written the first draft of the show about the same time he was writing the manuscript of the book. How detailed the earliest draft of the show was, however, is uncertain, since it doesn't seem to have survived. Baum might have produced no more than a general scenario. He often seems to have exaggerated the truth to make a good story for the press, so perhaps the show was actually no more than a few notes when this article was published in the San Diego, California, Evening Tribune on November 6, 1907. Similar articles about the show appeared in newspapers nationwide about the same time.

The article reads in part:
Friends of L. Frank Baum, the well known composer, have received word to the effect that within the near future the American Extravaganza company, composed of New York and Chicago capitalists, is to produce a new opera from the pen of the gifted Chicagoan.

The name of the new comic opera is "Ozma of Oz," and those who have read the manuscript predict for it an even greater success than attended the "Wizard of Oz," which was also composed by Mr. Baum.

San Diego and Coronado people will be particularly interested in the production of the new opera, inasmuch as it may be termed a Coronado product. Mr. Baum spends his winters every year at Coronado and it was while putting in the winter months here last winter that he composed the opera.

While some of the old "Wizard of Oz" characters, notably the scarecrow and tin man, are to appear in the new story, there are several others that are, Mr. Baum thinks, destined to supersede them, such as a clockwork man called "Tiktok," who thinks, speaks and acts by means of three separate mechanical appliances.
Clearly Tik-Tok seems to have been a prominent feature of the show from the very beginning. The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman, stars of The Wizard of Oz, still touring in 1907 after its smash Broadway run, didn't reach the final version of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz. In fact, little mention of Oz ended up in the show at all.

Baum had earlier adapted his first two Oz books to stage musicals. The first, The Wizard of Oz, was one of the biggest hits of the twentieth century's first decade and made Baum at the time far more famous as a playwright and composer than as a children's author. The show Baum adapted from his second Oz book was a failure, but that didn't stop him. This third Oz stage adaptation, based on his third Oz book, was destined to be another hit, although it would take a half dozen more years to reach the stage. The newspaper article calls these shows "operas," but they're what we'd call musicals today. 

I'm particularly delighted to be bringing The Tik-Tok Man of Oz back to its place of birth for Oz Con International. It will return to San Diego for one night only on Saturday, August 9, 2014, as part of Winkie Con 50.

Friday, April 18, 2014

Tik-Tok's First Appearance

Here's a color illustration by John R. Neill from L. Frank Baum's 1907 Oz book Ozma of Oz. We see Dorothy Gale and Billina the Yellow Hen discovering Tik-Tok. The copper, clockwork man had been locked in a cave by the King of Ev. Billina found the key to the lock, Dorothy found the cave, and Tik-Tok was introduced to the world.

Neill had a little trouble with the spatial relationship between Dorothy's wrist and Tik-Tok's forearm, but who cares? The bold color and clear, decisive linework make Neill's illustrations for Ozma of Oz delightful to behold.

Sunday, February 23, 2014

The Tik-Tok Man of Oz

Original 1913 poster for The Tik-Tok Man of Oz
Clockwork Productions presents The Tik-Tok Man of Oz, the musical play originally produced in Los Angeles, California, in 1913. The book and lyrics were written by children's book author L. Frank Baum, as a sequel to The Wizard of Oz. The music was composed by Louis F. Gottschalk, composer of many early film scores, including scores for films by D. W. Griffith and Charlie Chaplin.

The Tik-Tok Man of Oz enjoyed a successful run in Los Angeles, then toured the USA and Canada, arriving in San Diego, California, in 1914. Now, one hundred years later, San Diego will once again host a presentation of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz. This revival will be presented one night only, on Saturday, August 9, 2014, as the evening program of the 50th annual Winkie Con, the world's longest running Oz event. The Regency Ballroom of the Town and Country Resort, 500 Hotel Circle North, San Diego, California, will be turned into a theater to present the show.

All the surviving musical numbers from the original production--more than twenty in all--will be performed. These include the fourteen songs written by L. Frank Baum and Louis F. Gottschalk, as well as four additional songs by Oliver Morosco and Victor Schertzinger, an overture, an entr'acte, reprises, and dances. The original script by L. Frank Baum has been abridged by award-winning Oz author and illustrator Eric Shanower in order to keep the running time of this production under two and a half hours.

Original Sheet Music
Original Sheet Music

Betsy and Hank in 1913
The Tik-Tok Man of Oz features plenty of action, comedy, romance, and suspense. The star of the show is Tik-Tok, a clockwork man made all of copper, who must be wound up with a key in order to move, think, and speak. Tik-Tok is rescued by young Betsy Bobbin and her pet mule Hank who are helping the Shaggy Man to search for his long lost brother.  The adventurers are joined by Queen Ann and her brave Army of Oogaboo, as well as Polychrome the Daughter of the Rainbow and Ozma the Rose Princess. They all must face the magical power of Ruggedo the villainous Metal Monarch deep in his underground cavern full of precious metal and jewels.

A full-convention ticket to Winkie Con 50 includes guaranteed seating for the Saturday evening performance of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz. To register for Winkie Con 50, click here for the Winkie Con website.

The Tik-Tok Man of Oz is funded through the online crowd-sourcing website Kickstarter. The Kickstarter campaign for The Tik-Tok Man of Oz ran March 13 through April 11, 2014. Sixty-nine backers became part of this fascinating project by pledging toward it. In thanks, they are receiving exclusive updates (with photos) on the progress of the production as well as the rewards listed on the Kickstarter campaign page. You can still watch our Kickstarter video to learn more and hear music from The Tik-Tok Man of Oz. 

 Winkie Con 50 features The Tik-Tok Man of Oz on Saturday, August 9, 2014